The project implementation profile new tool for project managers
The project manager is responsible for day-to-day management of the project and must be competent in managing the six aspects of a project, i. Project managers work on specific projects that have definite outcomes, have time limits and have to stay within a budget. They may be skills you already use in your day to day life as well as being job-specific abilities developed through education and training. We call these soft skills and hard skills, which can range from leadership , being able to motivate and encourage others, have good communication and decision making abilities, to managing risk, budgeting and project planning. Project management skills are transferable from one industry to another.
Project Management Tools
This blog cover 5 tips you need to know to get started using Microsoft Teams as your project management tool. Most people know Microsoft Teams as the communication tool that it is — they know that they can use Microsoft Teams to be able to connect with their colleagues and their team members via chat and voice and video calling capabilities.
Deadlines are, of course, vitally important to those Project Managers and project management professionals, but, lucky for you, Microsoft Teams allows you and your team the ability to share an Outlook group calendar within the Teams platform.
Check out this guide on how to add a group calendar to Teams. If your team is also using Microsoft Planner to help organize your projects, that can also be integrated into your Teams platform, giving you another efficient way to keep track of tasks for each project and its corresponding deadlines.
Managing multiple deadlines and tasks? Planner in Microsoft Teams is a simple-to-use project management tool. This tutorial will show you how to create a board with Planner to keep you and your team organized. Watch full series.
Want to learn more about how to use Microsoft Teams to your advantage? Still need help? Office Read More. By Onyeka Ndukwe on April 06,
Learn the importance of project management and how it can help your team to save time and money, improve internal communication, make better business decisions, and more. And as a result, the Project Management Institute reports that the demand for project managers has been growing more rapidly than the demand for skilled workers in other occupations. This emphasis on the importance of project managers reflects the growing understanding of the impact that good project management can have on a business. Companies are starting to realize that good project management is important for stronger results and happier employees.
Seven critical success factors in project management that help you meet project because of this latest success and this does not happen.
What’s The Future of Project Management in 2022 and beyond?
Perspectives are different frameworks from which to explore the knowledge around sustainable sanitation and water management. Perspectives are like filters: they compile and structure the information that relate to a given focus theme, region or context. This allows you to quickly navigate to the content of your particular interest while promoting the holistic understanding of sustainable sanitation and water management. Implementation simply means carrying out the activities described in your work plan.
In recent years, project management has become a distinct profession in which many find success.
5 Best Tips to Help Your Team Implement a New Project Management Tool
A project profile provides a snapshot look at a project and provides valuable information in the development of the project execution plan and the assignment of resources to the project. Most organizations have some form of project profiling process. Some simple processes consider the project size, technology, and location to develop the project profile. A few years ago, I observed a project manager with a long list of successful projects absolutely struggle with a project. As I looked around, I noticed that often times project managers who do superb jobs on some projects will fail on others. What causes this to happen?
Our pre-vetted project managers will make sure tasks are well-understood and stakeholders are informed. Hire a Project Manager Hire a Project Manager. Shortcuts.
Introduction to Project Management
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Get in touch with us for career information. We're here from am to 5pm Monday to Friday — except Wednesdays when we're here from 9. Call Email us with your career question. Back to top. Alternative titles for Project Manager:. Project managers manage the planning, resourcing, scheduling and administration of projects to deliver them on time and within budget.
Curious about project management as a career option? What does this job entail? Is it for you? The authors have been in project management for about two decades and they answer some questions you might have before deciding if this is the right career for you.
Top construction management undergraduate degree
Best Colleges for Construction Management
These include:. The Research Seminar and Research Project component of this degree will allow you to develop expertise in a specialised area of interest. There are two different entry pathways to the Master of Construction Project Management. This is based on the depth of your prior experience, and how closely it relates to construction project management. You may be asked to provide evidence of your English proficiency to study at UNSW depending on your educational background and citizenship.
English language skills are vitally important for coping with lectures, tutorials, assignments and examinations - this is why UNSW requires a minimum English language competency for enrolment. Your qualification will be used as evidence of your English proficiency.
UNSW Global offers courses and programs designed to help you reach the English language level required for entry into your chosen degree. Different options are available depending on your current English language level. Learn more. If you did not meet the entry requirements, UNSW Global has university pathway programs that provide seamless transition to UNSW Sydney so you can achieve your academic and career goals.
The amount you pay will vary depending on the calendar year to enrol, the courses you select and whether your study load is more or less than 1 Equivalent Full Time Student Load 8 courses per year. Indicative fees are a guide for comparison only based on current conditions and available data.
These include: Construction project management Construction planning Construction informatics Risk management Business analytics Infrastructure planning Property analysis Research focus The Research Seminar and Research Project component of this degree will allow you to develop expertise in a specialised area of interest. Why study this degree at UNSW? Program Code. Entry requirements. Admission pathways. English language requirements. You can prove this by providing evidence that you meet one or more of the following criteria: English language tests and university English courses Prior study in the medium of English Other qualifications UNSW Global offers courses and programs designed to help you reach the English language level required for entry into your chosen degree.
Check the specific English language requirements for this program. Which applies to you? Program structure. Full program structure. Below is a summary of what you could study in each available stream of the program: 1. Future careers. Potential careers. Construction management Project management Design management Value management International project management.
In University of Nebraska at Kearney's Construction Management degree program, you'll be provided with a strong technical and managerial foundation for all.
University of Florida
By: Steven Fielding on Mar. If you are thinking about going to school to further your education and boost your career in construction management, we have some resources for you! While searching and applying for schools is all about finding the right fit for your dreams, we know it can be challenging. To help you out, we compiled a list of seven of the best colleges and universities for studying construction management. Hopefully this helps you achieve your goals by making your search for the perfect college and program easier. Through these programs, you can obtain a well-rounded education about construction principles, technology, and business. Located in South Carolina, Clemson University offers an educational program with practical experience and resources. With the Bachelor of Science in Construction Science and Management you will spend time in the laboratory, receive mentorship from faculty, and build up your resume with a required internship. If you are looking for post-graduate education, Clemson also offers a Masters in Construction Science Management. In this program you will gain technical and professional knowledge and skills to manage construction, engineering, and business.
Prepares you for professional practice as a construction manager. Provides a well-rounded educational background in business, construction management and science, liberal arts, management, mathematics, and college physics.
Programs and Degrees
Construction management is a complex field that requires a thorough understanding of a wide variety of topics encompassing the legal, business, and technical aspects of the industry. Construction management degree programs combine disciplines such as architecture, business, and engineering, ideal for professionals looking to pursue leadership roles in the construction industry. Through such programs, students learn how to manage, organize, lead, and plan construction projects of all kinds, be it commercial, residential or industrial. Some of the courses studied include sustainable design, construction accounting, building information modeling, and construction project management. Additionally, students acquire a wide variety of business skills such as marketing, research, academic writing, scheduling, facility management, and more.
Robert Gordon University · 9. Edinburgh Napier University · 8. University of Ulster · 7. University of the West of England · 6. Aston University.
Construction Management (B.S.)
Best Construction Management Degrees 2021
A degree in construction management provides a lot of practical and theoretical knowledge to acquire a managerial role in the field of construction. Programs are generally designed to cover a wide range of topics related to construction such as construction safety, law, drawings, estimation, scheduling, etc. Experiential learning is one of the most important factors offered by several universities in the form of work-study learning opportunities, internships, and co-ops. Given that the curriculum prepares and trains students in all project delivery skills and procedures, the popularity of the Construction Management Course has skyrocketed in recent years. Despite the fact that there are many colleges and institutions that offer the program, which is of high academic level, Canada is considered one of the top study destinations for Construction Management Courses. International students wanting to pursue construction management at a Canadian university will need approximately 37, CAD on average to cover their tuition costs.
More Information. Are you looking for Construction Management General courses?
Best Construction Management Colleges & Universities in California
For details on it including licensing , click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa 3. See the license for more details, but that basically means you can share this book as long as you credit the author but see below , don't make money from it, and do make it available to everyone else under the same terms. This content was accessible as of December 29, , and it was downloaded then by Andy Schmitz in an effort to preserve the availability of this book. Normally, the author and publisher would be credited here.
The classical perspective of management sought to turn organizations into
The benefits of internal communication are then highlighted, followed by a history of the changing perceptions and practices of internal communication.
I use the terms internal communications and organizational communications to mean the same thing. Deetz described two ways of seeing and defining internal communications.
In this view, the organization is a container in which communication occurs. The first approach has dominated, but the second perspective is gaining wider acceptance as more organizations recognize the crucial role of communication in dealing with complex issues and rapid changes in a turbulent global market. Fundamentally, relationships grow out of communication, and the functioning and survival of organizations is based on effective relationships among individuals and groups.
Communication is the basis for individuals and groups to make sense of their organization, what it is and what it means. Internal communication is a complex and dynamic process, but early models focused on a one-way transmission of messages. The Shannon-Weaver Model , concerned with technology and information distribution, is a classic example. In this S-M-C-R model, an information source [S] encoded a message [M] and delivered it through a selected channel [C] to a designated receiver [R], who decoded it.
Today, the model is more complex due to new media and high-speed, multi-directional communications Burton, ; Williams, However, the core components live on in formal communications planning and implementation. Organizational leaders and communication specialists first develop strategies to achieve objectives, construct relevant messages and then transmit them through diverse channels to stimulate conversations with employees and members.
Employees communicate informally with others inside and outside the organization through high-speed communications, too. Internal communication occurs on multiple levels. Interpersonal or face-to-face F-T-F communication between individuals is a primary form of communication, and for years organizations have sought to develop the speaking, writing and presentation skills of leaders, managers and supervisors.
A network represents how communication flows in an organization. Networks can be formal and informal. In a formal communication network , messages travel through official pathways e. Informal communications move along unofficial paths e. Informal communications are often interpersonal and horizontal, and employees believe they are more authentic than formal communications Burton, Employees and members use both networks to understand and interpret their organizations. Communications also can be described as vertical, horizontal or diagonal.
A communication channel is a medium through which messages are transmitted and received. Channels are categorized as print, electronic or F-T-F interpersonal. Common print channels include memos, brochures, newsletters, reports, policy manuals, annual reports and posters.
New technologies have spurred the use of electronic channels , e. Face-to-face channels include speeches, team meetings, focus groups, brown bag lunches, social events and gatherings and management by wandering around.
Hot media e. Hot media are more segmented and linear, while cool media may be more abstract and require more participation to understand. Daft and Lengel developed a media richness model to explain media choices.
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that effective internal communications help increase employee job satisfaction, morale, productivity, commitment, trust and learning; improve communication climate and relationships with publics; and enhance quality, revenues and earnings.
This section outlines five theoretical approaches that evolved in the last century—the classical, human relations, human resources, systems and cultural approaches.
Communication features or characteristics of each approach are briefly described. More comprehensive treatments may be found in many communication texts, e. Sometimes referred to as the machine metaphor because of how employees were viewed as interchangeable parts, this approach is grounded in scientific management theories of work and workers in the early 20th century. Frederick Taylor was the best known proponent of this approach.
These included such things as designing each task to improve performance, hiring workers who possessed characteristics that matched each job and training workers and rewarding them for productivity achievements.
The German sociologist Max Weber developed a theory of bureaucracy as a way to formally establish authority and structure operations and communications. Some key components of this approach included: a distinct chain of command with centralized decision-making; clear delineation of tasks and responsibilities; and writing everything down to avoid misunderstandings. Communication features: Two key communication goals were to prevent misunderstandings, which might impair productivity or quality, and to convey decisions and directives of top management.
The formal structure of organizations drove top-down communication, primarily through print channels. The content of most communications was task or rule oriented. The social side of communication was largely ignored, and employees relied heavily on the grapevine for such information. In the s, the focus shifted from work tasks to employees and their needs, and the Hawthorne Studies spurred this movement.
Ask any veteran who has spent his entire career managing workers in a factory and he will tell you that the principles of management outlined by Taylor, Fayol prove indispensable to running an organization. These management theories and especially the classical management theory lasted for a few decades after inception. History: In the medieval ages when the renaissance era was at its peak and there was a great interest in science and technology in the West, while the civilizations in the east plunged into the dark ages as they were bound by superstition regarding foreign travel and questioning the laws of nature. Scientists in Europe questioned the laws of nature and invented electricity, the light bulb, the radio, wireless communication, railroad, electricity, steam engine used for both railway and sea-based transport. These groundbreaking inventions helped increase productivity manifold and laid the seeds of the industrial revolution. Factories began mushrooming at a scorching pacing to convert raw materials into finished goods. These could be produced at really low costs and sold at a high mark up overseas to reap super profits as handmade goods could not match factory-made goods in price or quality.
The classical approach is the earliest thought of management-club.com classical approach was associated with the ways to manage work and organizations more.
Classical Theory of Management: There are different views of management and classical views of management or classical management theory is also one of them. Management has always remained a challenge for people. Planning, organizing, recruiting, directing and controlling, etc everything comes under the Responsibilities of Manager. Different managers provided their views to describe the classical viewpoint, which are also known as classical management theory , such as scientific, bureaucratic and administrative, etc. Classical Views — Classical Management Theory. Scientific Management. There may be various ways to process one task; considering all those ways and selecting one best way is the main purpose of scientific management. Various experiments were done by different scientists, including Frederick W. Taylor is widely recognized as first management thinker, who tried to find out scientific methods. Taylor did different experiments from which the event of Bethlehem Steel companies is well known.
Management Theory of Henri Fayol: Summary, Examples
Highlighting important issues in current practices, the article concludes with 15 principles of effective communication and an interactive list of recommended readings. In good times or bad, there seems to be little real understanding of the relationships between managers, among employees, and interactions between the two. When there are problems, everyone acknowledges that the cause often is a communication problem. So now what?
The schools of management thought are theoretical frameworks for the study of management.
Unity of direction – the entire organisation should be aligned and be moving towards a common goal. Subordination of individual interests – individual needs and.
Theoretic management models are used as guiding principles for governments and businesses around the world. Two of the most common organizational and management theories are those of Frederick Taylor and those of Max Weber. The Scientific Theory is based on using data and human strengths to increase output, while the Bureaucratic management style focuses on hierarchies and tight job roles.
The new PMC design is here! Learn more about navigating our updated article layout.
In a very simple sense, job design means the ways that decision-makers choose to organize work responsibilities, duties, activities, and tasks. Job Redesign thus involves changing work responsibilities, duties, activities, and tasks. Job Design. Job design is the process of Work arrangement or rearrangement aimed at reducing or overcoming job dissatisfaction and employee alienation arising from repetitive and mechanistic tasks. Through job design, organizations try to raise productivity levels by offering non-monetary rewards such as greater satisfaction from a sense of personal achievement in meeting the increased challenge and responsibility of one's work. Job enlargement, job enrichment, job rotation, and job simplification are the various techniques used in a job design exercise.
Management has been as old as the human beings and with the evolvement of humans management has also evolved. The history of management and its theories can be traced back to thousands of years. However, systematic development of the theories of management is generally viewed from the end of nineteenth century with the emergence of large industrial organizations and the ensuing problems associated with their structure and management.
Pid project management
Fortunately, change doesn't need to mean project failure. So long as the initial scope is clearly defined, changes made during the life cycle of your project are well managed, and you use project management software that provides change control features, it's still possible to deliver projects successfully.
At the outset of your project, ensure there aren't any gaps in the statement of work document that can lead to scope changes later in the execution phase. When changes occur, for whatever reason, a tight change control process can help you keep the project on track.
However, on some projects, even a high number of changes and a severe amount of scope increase have been added to the project without any schedule extension given to perform the same work. To make matters even worse, schedule impact hasn't been assessed as part of the change process. It's vital that all changes are assessed in the dimensions of the budget plan, the resource plan, and the project schedule.
If scope changes do occur, try to ensure they come early in the project to avoid unnecessary budget overrun. Scope creep happens when changes are included in the project scope of work without a proper change control process in place. Unfortunately, for many project managers, scope creep is still a real issue. To avoid scope creep and stay on schedule, follow these tips:.
To stay on top of the work, avoid scope creep, and manage changing requirements, project managers need a software solution that offers change management features, schedule impact analysis, and allows you to perform proper scope, resource plan, and schedule control. To find out for yourself how Safran Project can improve project planning, as well as execution, request your free trial here.
Case Studies. Resources Resource Hub Blog. Contact Us. Support Contact Us. Defining Your Project Defining a project scope that is specific, clear, and attainable while ensuring any scope changes are carefully controlled is key to capital project management success.
Haunted by Scope Creep? To avoid scope creep and stay on schedule, follow these tips: Ensure the scope of work is well defined. The schedule and resource plan should focus on the deliverables and how to complete the deliverables described. Work that's not part of the defined scope should not be included in the project schedule. Verify scope and project execution plan with all stakeholders. Set the project baseline at the planning stage and measure performance against it.
Set up a proper change control process. Ensure that scope, resource requirements, and schedule impact is assessed and improved before including new activities into the schedule. Any change in work should be accompanied by funds in resources and budgets. Editor's Note: This article was updated in for relevance and clarity.
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For the project manager the PID can be compared to a contract, an agreement between the executive and the project manager.
How to write a PID (Project Initiation Documentation)?
Project Scope Statement Project Background
The previous chapter focused on the first element of projectmanagement - project initiation. This chapter covers the remainingelements, all the way through to project completion. Alongside the benefits realisation plan and business case coveredin the previous chapter, the project team will also need a detailed planfor resources, timings, interim targets etc. This will be the projectplan. A project plan aims to ensure that the project objectives areachieved within the constraints of quality, cost and time. The PID is a formal, detailed document which contains planning information extracted from other sources such as.
This Project Initiation Document (PID): The project will be managed and coordinated by a Project Management Team, led by Dr. Cerilan Rogers as Project.
B9: Product Breakdown. The Project Initiation Document PID provides all the necessary information to the stakeholders involved in the project. The executive bases decisions about the starting of the project on the PID.
Difference between pid and project plan
Starting a new project is exciting, but you must do your due diligence ahead of time to ensure you start off on the right foot. Read on to learn more about the key details of the initiation phase, including how to create a project charter, define scope, identify objectives, and set expectations.
<Project name> Project Initiation Document (PID)
As a result of creating the Project Plan and planning in detail, the Business Case can now be updated with the full details. The project time-scale and the timing of benefit reviews, the cost of the project and the costs of operational and maintenance activities can now be added to the Business Case. Also the aggregated risks from the updated Risk Register can be summarised in the Business Case. This detailed Business Case which is owned by the project board executive , will be used by the project board to authorise the project in the first place, and used throughout the project to ensure that the project is and remains viable.
All project management courses are now live virtual courses or self-paced online courses. Articles , Practices. For UK and European readers, it is likely that the opposite is true. The article will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of both. This will help the reader judge which is appropriate for their own needs whether they work as a project manager, project sponsor, or work in a project management office PMO. Project management today is an ever-growing profession.
One of the themes running through several of my recent posts is the importance of effective Governance. Both organisational governance and its sub-set project governance.
This requires the optimum strategy and the right approach to risk taking supported by sufficient processes to be reasonably confident the organisations limited resources are being used to achieve the best short, medium and long term outcomes. Project governance focuses on the portfolios of programs and projects used by the organisation to deliver many of the strategic objectives. This process focuses first on doing the right projects and programs constrained by the organisations capacity to undertake the work — Portfolio Management; secondly, creating the environment to do the selected projects and programs right- developing and maintaining an effective capability; and lastly systems to validate the usefulness and efficiency of the ongoing work which feeds back into the selection and capability aspects of governance.
Within this framework, portfolio management is the key. Strategic Portfolio Management focuses on developing the best mix of programs and projects to deliver the organisations future within its capacity to deliver. It is impossible to develop an innovative future for an organisation without taking risks and not every risk will pay off. Apple had no guarantees the i-Pod and its i-Tunes shop would succeed when it started on the journey of innovation that has lead to the i-Phone, i-Pad and Apple becoming one of the largest companies in the world based on capitalisation.
The balance of project governance focuses around creating the environment that generates the capability to deliver projects and programs effectively, effective sponsorship, effective staff development, effective and flexible processes and procedures, simple but accurate reporting and good early warning systems to identify issues, problems and projects no longer creating value a pharmaceutical industry saying is that if a project is going to fail it is best to fail early and cheap!
Waterman, Jr. The primary driver for long term success is focusing on the health of the organisation, supported by performance. Sustained excellence needs an organisation that has a vision of a medium and long term future as well as performing effectively in the current environment. This requires investment in change to meet those futures with no guarantees the investment will pay off, in the short-term, or at all.
But innovation is not enough; the key enabler of sustained excellence is the ability to implement change! This requires good project capabilities to transform innovative ideas into the elements needed to enable the change such as new processes, products or procedures, supported by the ability to implement the change effectively within the organisation to realise the benefits.
There is no magic formula for this; different styles of leadership can be equally effective. Corporate governance is defined as aligning as nearly as possible the interests of individuals, the organisation and society.
The role of effective project management is to deliver a realistic and achievable outcome efficiently; if the parameters for the project are unrealistic in the first place, the best project management can do is stop the situation deteriorating further!
Here are a few of his comments:. The framework needed by senior executives is well established, the APM has just published the 2nd edition of Directing Change — a guide to the governance of project management 60, copies of the 1st edition have been distributed since publication in This guide is written by senior managers for senior managers. It provides clear overall guidance to an organisations governing body board or equivalent and executives on their responsibilities and more specific guidance on choosing the right projects portfolio direction , project sponsorship, project management capability and disclosure and reporting.
Copies can be downloaded from the APM website or: www. I feel he is understating the importance of the role and responsibility of the senior executives, particularly when it comes to the process of changing an organisations culture to accept good governance and effective project management!
You are currently browsing the Stakeholder Management's Blog blog archives for December, Create a free website or blog at WordPress. Project and Organisational Governance December 28, One of the themes running through several of my recent posts is the importance of effective Governance. Apple Lisa circa. Project Governance December 11, Corporate governance is defined as aligning as nearly as possible the interests of individuals, the organisation and society.
As long as that remains uncorrected, no amount of efficiency in the workmen will avail very much Organizing for Work, p Our industries are suffering from lack of competent managers,—which is another way of saying that many of those who control our industries hold their positions, not through their ability to accomplish results, but for some other reason Organizing for Work, p By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use.
When considering governance, it is important to differentiate between the several different types that may exist. These include organisational governance, organisational project management OPM governance, and portfolio, program and project governance . This article will mainly focus on governance at the project level. It appears that project governance is an ambiguous concept that suffer under a lack of an agreed on, generally accepted definition. This leads to the organisations developing their own understanding or interpretation of the concept of project governance, which fit their individually perspectives .
APM GoPM Specific Interest Group () Directing change, a guide to governance of project management. (2nd ed.). High Wycombe, UK: Association for Project.
October By Carlos Eduardo Martins Serra. October 22, Governance is a buzzword that naturally sounds like something pretty relevant, maybe because it reminds us of government or of the verb to govern. However, many people would find it difficult to explain what governance is in practical terms. On an organisational level, most of us may see governance as a board of directors making difficult and strategic decisions aiming to make the business successful. But how is the governance cascaded down to the non-C-level layers of the organisation?
10 apm guide to governance
The module will cover: project management concepts; the roles and responsibilities of project managers; project plan development; project plan execution; integrated change control; project initiation and scope planning; scope definition, verification and change control; project time management - activity definition and sequencing; estimating activity duration and schedule development and control; Programme vs.
This programme provides an opportunity to review what best practice in managing the project portfolio looks like and compares project sponsorship processes within other engineering organisations. Senior Managers responsible for sponsoring projects. Tell us your team's CPD needs and we'll come to you with a specialised training programme, customised for your engineering sector. Contact our advisors if you need help finding the most appropriate training for your team. Contact us if you have any questions about our training courses.
APM 2010 2011 Study Directing of Project Portfolios
It describes its processes as a standard for project management. This is because the PMI itself was approved by the American National Standards.
Project governance is the management framework within which project decisions are made. Project governance is a critical element of any project, since the accountabilities and responsibilities associated with an organization's business as usual activities are laid down in their organizational governance arrangements; seldom does an equivalent framework exist to govern the development of its capital investments projects. For instance, the organization chart provides a good indication of who in the organization is responsible for any particular operational activity the organization conducts. But unless an organization has specifically developed a project governance policy, no such chart is likely to exist for project development activity. Therefore, the role of project governance is to provide a decision making framework that is logical, robust and repeatable to govern an organization's capital investments.
Fire and Rescue Services FRSs are increasingly recognising the importance of formal project management and programme support structures to be able to work properly and achieve their business goals.
Project Governance Regime of an Organization
The governance of public sector infrastructure projects became an important area of interest in the literature on project management. Today, it is a focal point for policymakers to ensure successful appraisal and implementation of government-sponsored programs. This paper aims to investigate the current practices of project governance PG for steering the public sector infrastructure program in Pakistan.