Using Silviculture to Maintain & Enhance Wildlife Habitat

00:00 Introduction
01:44 SECTION I – Primary Factors Influencing How Wildlife Respond To Timber Harvesting
02:35 Role of Plant Structure in wildlife habitat selection
02:45 Plant layers (Ground, Shrub, Midstory, Canopy)
03:11 Plant density definitions
06:37 Role of Plant Species Composition in wildlife habitat selection
06:55 How plant species influence fruit & seed availability
08:18 How plant species influence insect abundance
09:20 How plant species influence wildlife cover
10:35 Plant species diversity supports a diverse wildlife community
11:10 Scales of plant diversity (Within-stand, Across-Property, Landscape)
11:36 Manage your property to compliment other properties
13:10 SECTION II – Taxa-specific Wildlife Considerations
13:17 BIRDS - Factors influencing habitat selection by birds
13:56 Birds first select habitat based on Plant Structure
15:46 Recognize two primary groups of birds that use forest habitat
16:15 Young-forest bird species (shrubland birds, shrubland-dependent birds)
16:33 Mature-forest bird species (mature-forest birds, forest interior birds)
17:43 What is “Young-Forest” for birds?
18:46 When young-forest conditions disappear from clearcuts (Stem Exclusion)
19:49 What is “Mature-Forest” for birds?
21:44 Forest structure & the bird community transition gradually as a forest ages
22:39 All forest age-classes required to maintain wildlife diversity
23:20 Area-sensitivity & area requirements of young-forest & mature-forest birds
23:35 “Gap-Specialist” Young-forest birds
24:08 Minimum area requirements of most young-forest birds
24:34 Historic habitats of dry shrubland birds
25:11 Habitat trade-off when creating large shrublands
25:33 Minimum area requirements of mature forest birds
26:35 Maintaining mature forest does NOT mean no timber harvesting
27:21 Quick review of important concepts
29:03 MAMMALS – Factors influencing habitat selection by mammals
29:09 Habitat needs of BATS
30:29 Habitat needs of SQUIRRELS
31:44 Habitat needs of SMALL MAMMALS
32:41 Small mammal abundance often greatest in hardwood stands
33:09 Habitat needs of WEASELS & BOBCAT & LYNX
34:20 Habitat needs of OMNIVORES & HERBIVORES
34:51 Habitat considerations for BEAVERS
36:24 AMPHIBIANS & REPTILES – Factors influencing habitat selection
36:57 Habitat needs of AMPHIBIANS
38:12 Habitat needs of SNAKES
39:23 Habitat value of & recommendations to maintain ground & shrub layer structural features
40:33 Habitat needs of TURTLES
41:07 Dates of turtle nesting in New England
41:59 Wetland types & associated amphibians and reptiles
43:27 SECTION III – Expected Wildlife Response to Silvicultural Treatments
43:56 Technical definitions of common silviculture methods & systems
46:43 Application of silvicultural methods to maintain & enhance wildlife habitat
47:12 SINGLE-TREE SELECTION to maintain & enhance wildlife habitat
48:08 Crown-thin crop trees to improve mast production
48:15 Release young mast-producing tree to recruit into overstory layer
48:21 Establish & maintain a patchy or dense shrub layer
48:39 Maintain core winter shelter in deer wintering areas
49:03 GROUP OPENINGS to maintain & enhance wildlife habitat
49:25 How mature-forest & young-forest wildlife respond to group openings
50:43 Width of Rights-of-way that support greatest young-forest bird diversity
50:52 Size of group openings that support greatest plant diversity
51:27 Locate group openings over established mast-producing shrubs
52:01 When to retain mast trees on edge or within group openings
51:01 Habitat value of group openings greater than ¼ acre
53:41 Group openings as post-fledging habitat for mature-forest birds
54:08 Group openings for small mammals, amphibians, reptiles
54:30 Group openings to create winter browse for deer & snowshoe hare
54:41 CLEARCUTS to maintain & enhance wildlife habitat
55:08 How bird community responds to clearcuts
55:44 Clearcut size for young-forest & open-country wildlife
57:00 Provide refuges in clearcuts to benefit amphibians
57:26 SHELTERWOOD STRUCTURE to maintain & enhance wildlife habitat
59:52 Final thoughts for where to locate different sized openings
1:05:36 Good Forestry in the Granite State
1:05:54 Contact UNH Cooperative Extension for assistance
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