Continuous, real-time, and non-invasive measurement of vital parameters (specifically, chemical biomarkers) in the human body could address unmet clinical needs in healthcare monitoring, personalized therapy, closed-loop drug dosage and monitoring and management of pain and chronic health conditions. A wide range of molecular components, including enzymes, hormones, and antibodies commonly found via invasive blood testing are accurately reflected in other body fluids such as interstitial fluid, saliva and sweat. However, the potential of non-blood biofluids in reflecting an individual's health condition in real-time has not been harvested yet because of the absence of a suitable analysis technology. In this seminar, an overview of our recent research on subcutaneous and wearable biosensors is given with an emphasis on the role of microelectronics to allow miniaturisation, full integration, and autonomy of such devices. We also present a brief account of our ongoing search for a biofluid-based biomarker of nociception, and wearable devices that may allow their measurement.