Importance of selecting the right type of tool Research in Educational Management || Characteristics

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The Importance of selecting the right type of tool Research in Educational Management
Research tools are the measuring devices. Every measuring device has some kind of graduation depending upon the system of measurement. For example, the FPS or CGS systems measure length in foot or centimeter. Similarly weight is measured in pounds and grams. The footrule that measures length is graduated in inches. There are two major attributes - (1) each inch is of equal length wherever it appears on the footrule, (2) two different objects measured as two inches, for example by same footrule are of same length. Just as FPS or CGS provides the basis for scaling for physical measurement, it is necessary to provide certain form of scaling for mental measurement.
measurement of variables like intelligence, achievement, demographic, attributes, etc.
Four type of scaling are used in measurement. These are: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio.
There are mainly three characteristics of a good research tool. These include validity, reliability, and usability. In selecting tools for collecting data a researcher should evaluate them in terms of these characteristics.
There are various procedures to assess the reliability of a tool. These include (i) the test-retest method, (ii) the alternate or parallel-form method, (iii) the split half method, and (iv) the rational equivalence method.
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