Horizontal and Vertical Integration of Companies, Types and Examples.

Horizontal integration occurs when a business grows by purchasing related businesses—namely, its competitors. Vertical integration, on the other hand, occurs when a business takes control of one or more stages in production or distribution, thereby owning all of the parts of the industrial process.

Horizontal integration involves acquiring or merging with competitors while vertical integration occurs when a firm expands into another production stage like acquiring a supplier or distributor. As such, vertical integration is the process of acquiring business operations within the same production vertical. A company that opts for vertical integration, though, takes complete control over one or more stages in the production or distribution of a product.

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