Gestational diabetes during pregnancy- Diabetes Types, Causes, Symptoms, Risk factors, Management||

Gestational diabetes during pregnancy- Diabetes Types, Causes, Symptoms, Risk factors, Management||

Gestational Diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms;[2] however, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a Caesarean section.[2] Babies born to mothers with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of being too large, having low blood sugar after birth, and jaundice.[2] If untreated, it can also result in a stillbirth.[2] Long term, children are at higher risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.[2]

Gestational diabetes can occur during pregnancy because of insulin resistance or reduced production of insulin.[2] Risk factors include being overweight, previously having gestational diabetes, a family history of type 2 diabetes, and having polycystic ovarian syndrome.[2] Diagnosis is by blood tests.[2] For those at normal risk, screening is recommended between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation.[2][3] For those at high risk, testing may occur at the first prenatal visit.[2]

Prevention is by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising before pregnancy.[2] Gestational diabetes is treated with a diabetic diet, exercise, medication (such as metformin), and possibly insulin injections.[2] Most women are able to manage their blood sugar with diet and exercise.[3] Blood sugar testing among those who are affected is often recommended four times a day.[3] Breastfeeding is recommended as soon as possible after birth.[2]

Gestational diabetes affects 3–9% of pregnancies, depending on the population studied.[3] It is especially common during the last three months of pregnancy.[2] It affects 1% of those under the age of 20 and 13% of those over the age of 44.[3] A number of ethnic groups including Asians, American Indians, Indigenous Australians, and Pacific Islanders are at higher risk.[3][2] In 90% of cases, gestational diabetes will resolve after the baby is born.[2] Women, however, are at an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.[3]

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