Self-management, which is also referred to as
‘self-control’, is the ability to control one’s emotions,
thoughts and behaviour effectively in different situations.
This includes motivating oneself, and working towards
achieving personal and academic goals.
Students with strong self-management skills are
better at doing certain things well, such as coming to
class on time, paying attention, obeying teachers, parents
and elders, working with discipline, etc. It helps a person
to do better in studies or work. In order to do well at work
and life, in general, one must be able to manage and
improve oneself in various skills, including timeliness,
discipline, problem solving and work habits. To manage
oneself well, a person needs to develop the following.
• Positive thinking: to think that one can get things
done and be happy.
• Result orientation: to dream big and achieve the
desired or set results.
• Self-awareness: to be aware of one’s personality
traits and make the best out of one’s strengths.
Session 1: Motivation and Positive Attitude
Motivation and positive thinking can help us overcome
fears and take up new challenges. Similarly, optimism,
which is a mental attitude, reflecting a belief or hope,
24 Employability Skills – Class XII
can lead to positive and desirable outcomes. It helps
us to achieve our dreams, continue working hard
towards achieving success and live a happy life with a
positive mindset.
“Optimism is the faith that leads to achievement. Nothing
can be done without hope and confidence.”
— Helen Keller
Motivation is derived from the word ‘motive’. Thus,
directing behaviour towards certain motive or goal is the
essence of motivation. An individual’s motivation may
come from within (intrinsic motivation) or be inspired
by others or events (extrinsic motivation).
Intrinsic motivation
It includes activities for which there is no apparent reward
but one derives enjoyment and satisfaction in doing
them. It occurs when people are internally motivated
to do something because it brings them pleasure. They
think it is important or feel what they are learning is
significant. Incentives related to the motive or goal can
satisfy one’s needs.
Extrinsic motivation
It arises because of incentives or external rewards. Lack
of motivation or incentives may lead to frustration, for
example, employees who are kept on contractual basis for
a long time may get frustrated and leave an organisation.
Positive attitude
A positive attitude makes a person happier, and helps
build and maintain relationships. It even increases one’s
chances of success. In addition, it can help the person
make better decisions. People, who maintain a positive
or optimistic attitude in life situations and challenges,
are able to move forward than those with a negative
attitude. Positive attitude helps improve mental and
physical health.
Ways to maintain positive attitude
It can take a little time and effort to build a positive
attitude (Figure 2.1). Following are some ways that can
help one maintain a positive attitude.
Self-management Skills 25
• Start the day with a morning routine. Say positive
affirmations, smile often and think about the
tasks to be accomplished during for the day.
• Feed the mind with positivity, read motivating
books, listen to music with uplifting lyrics, watch
inspiring movies, etc.
• Be proactive. A proactive person decides how one
must feel regardless of what may be going around
or what the day may bring.
• Focus on constructive and positive things. Do not
approach life with ‘problems’. Approach it with
• Learn from failures. Think what could have been
better and work towards the goals.
• Learn to focus on the present. Negativity mostly
stems out from anxiety of the past and
future events.
• Move towards your goals and
dreams. Be cheerful and work
hard to achieve the dreams.
Here are some more techniques that can help you to
maintain a positive outlook in the long run.
• Physical exercise and fresh air: Following
a healthy lifestyle is essential for students.
Practising yoga, meditation and deep breathing
exercises help improve blood circulation and relax
the body. Taking a walk or playing in the park
helps one to get a lot of fresh air, which helps in
becoming more active.
• Healthy diet: A healthy and balanced diet is
important for a healthy body and mind. Eating a
balanced diet, such as daal, roti, green vegetables
and fruits provides the strength required to do
daily work efficiently.
• Organise academic life: By keeping class
notes organised, completing assignments on
time and keeping track of all deadlines, stress
can be reduced to a great extent. When you are
not stressed, you can channelise your mind to
achieve the goals.
Figure 2.1: Positive attitude
• Adequate sleep: A good night sleep for
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