Establishing and maintaining a patent airway and ensuring effective oxygenation and ventilation are vital aspects of effective patient care. Attempting to stabilize the condition of a patient whose airway is compromised is futile. The human body needs a constant supply of oxygen to carry out the physiologic processes necessary to sustain life; the airway is where it all begins. Few situations will cause such acute deterioration and death more rapidly than airway or ventilation compromise.To preserve life, the airway must remain patent at all times—regardless of the situation. This chapter provides complex knowledge of airway management and ventilation methods, as well as reviewing anatomical and physiologic considerations.